Drought is a severe natural outbreak. Its main relationship is with the lack of water rain. Drought conditions arise when the actual rainfall is less than the normal rainfall for long time period. Apart from this, other factors like high temperature, relative humidity, dry vegetation is the causes of drought in India.
CAUSES OF DROUGHT
Several factors form the basis of drought given below:
Deforestation is said to be one of the main causes of drought in India of rainfall deficiency leading to drought conditions. Evaporation of water, the need for adequate water on the land, and a sufficient amount of trees and vegetation on the land are needed to attract rain. Deforestation and the construction of concrete buildings in their place have caused a major imbalance in the environment. This reduces the soil’s water-holding capacity and increases evaporation. These two are the reason for less rainfall.
2. Low Surface Water Flow
Rivers and lakes are the main sources of surface water in various regions around the world. The use of surface water for various human activities, the water in these sources dries up. this becomes causes of drought. Lack of rainfall, change in crop cycle and use of improved seeds variety reduces the moisture content in the soil and reduces the growth of plants and increases the conditions of desertification.
3. Global Warming
Everyone is aware of the negative impact of global warming on the environment. Other issues are the emission of greenhouse gases in which the increase in the Earth’s temperature results in increased evaporation. High temperature make the drought in that area.
4. Green House Effects
The earth receives energy from the sun and surface of the earth becomes heated. This energy passes through the atmosphere, in some quantity. Near about 30 % of the energy remain in the atmosphere. Some layers of gases in the atmosphere; carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous dioxide. These gases present in the atmosphere are causes of drought in India.
5. Air Circulation and Weather Patterns
Air circulation and weather patterns is also become the cause of drought. Today all the water we have is stored in the air and in the ground. Weather patterns rotate the water in the air. This is constantly changing in this reason .
TYPES OF DROUGHT
Some special areas are indicating that long time lack of rainfall. Some area get less rain in a year so they become drought. This can be happening only based on the location and periodicity of drought, and causes of drought in India. Here’s a look at the different types of droughts:
1. Meteorological Drought
Decrease in rainfall for a particular period of time and area. It can be for a few days, months, weather, or year – it is affected by meteorological drought. The annual rainfall is less then 75% , this is meteorological drought.
2. Hydrological Drought
This is associated with water reduction. Hydrological drought is often the result of two successive meteorological droughts. Hydrological drought is divide into three categories:
- Surface water dry
- Groundwater drought
- Soil moisture dry
This situation, as the name suggests, involves insufficient soil moisture that impedes the growth of crops. This is the result of meteorological drought.
3. Famine/ Starvation
This is the most severe drought situation. In such areas, people do not have access to food and there are widespread starvation and destruction. The government needs to intervene in such a situation and food is supplied to these places from other places.
4. Agricultural Drought
In meteorological or hydro logical drought harms to the crop yield in an area. It is considered to be affected by agricultural drought. The crop failure and low yields affects the income of the farmers in which leads to difficulties in meeting the essential requirements.
5. Socio-Economic Drought
In the social and economical drought occurs when, the availability of food and income is low due to crop failure and social security.
SYMPTOMS OF DROUGHT
- High temperature and low rainfall is causes of drought. Hot winds, low humidity, and high evaporation affects the drought.
- Drought are arise due to the lack of water supply and water resources.
- Drought can range from a few months to a year or two or even longer.
- No fixed time end of drought. effects slowly.
- No fixed time end of drought. Its duration may increase with high temperatures and dry conditions. In the condition of high rain becomes end.
- There is no limit to the drought-affected area. This can affect many districts apart from one district. All states are affects of drought.
- Lack of rainfall, change in crop cycle and use of improved seeds variety reduces the moisture content in the soil and reduces the growth of plants and increases the conditions of desertification.
- Less rainfall and depending on irrigation for crop production, surface resources (rivers, ponds, reservoirs, lakes) and groundwater levels.
- Inadequate and erratic rainfall for many years aggravates the crisis of food grains, fodder, and pure drinking water. The supply of hydropower falls below the minimum demand.
- The crop failure and low yields affects the income of the farmers in which leads to difficulties in meeting the essential requirements.
In conclusion, the problem of drought in India are very serious matter to all of us. This is mostly the result of misuse of water resources and non eco-friendly human activities. if aware this matter prevent this problem. It is time that governments of different countries should join hands to overcome this global issue.
FAQs For Causes of Drought in India
Drought is a severe natural outbreak. Its main relationship is with the lack of water rain. If the actual rainfall in a region is less than the normal or average rainfall for a long period, then drought conditions arise.
There are many reasons for drought; I explain some important causes of the drought.
1. Low Surface Water Flow
3. Global Warming
4. Air Circulation and Weather Patterns
5. Green House Effects
Human-generated and nature generated, both are responsible for the draught. Humans are misused of natural resources like; mining, destruction of natural resources for their better living life style. That’s the reason for the nature disaster happens in several times in the world. Example: Drought, Flood, Earthquake and more Event of nature.
In a developing country like India, drought has a wide impact on the public. The impact of the drought is particularly distinctive in view of the tropical monsoon character of the country.
Physical Impact: drought adversely affects the recharge of soil moisture, surface runoff and ground water table.
Impact on Agriculture:
Indian agriculture still now depends on monsoon rainfall, where about two thirds of the land lacks irrigation facilities and is said to be rain fed.
Social and Economic Impact:
The social and economic effects of drought are more severe than physical and agricultural impacts. Drought is almost associated with famine which has its social and economic consequences.