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Cyber crime, or computer oriented crime, is a crime involving a computer and a network. The computer can be used in the commission of a crime, or it can be the target. We can define in one word of Cyber offence.
“Cyber Crimes which are totally prohibited against any persons with a criminal purpose. Willfully hurtful the reputation of the victim directly or indirectly by the using of modern digital networks, physically or mentally harm to the victim”. e.g. Internet and mobile phones.
“Targeted crime against” Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors are involved in cyber crimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. In the present scenario the Cyber crime cross the international boundary from one country to another country. A study by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), in partnership with McAfee, concludes that $ 8 billion loses to cyber crime every year.
CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIME
1. Financial fraud crime
Computer fraud is the purpose of wrong presenting any facts that forbid someone to do or do something that causes harm. In this context, fraud would result in profit by Altering in an unauthorized manner.
This requires little technical expertise from stealing or entering incorrect data by employees. Entering unauthorized instructions or altering data using unauthorized procedures; Typically changing, destroying, suppressing or stealing production to conceal unauthorized transactions. This is difficult to detect. Changing or deleting stored data.
Other forms of fraud can be through using computer systems, including bank fraud, carding, identity theft, extortion and theft of classified information. These types of crimes often result in loss of personal information or monetary information.
2. Cyber Terrorism
Government officials and information technology security experts have reported significant increases in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. The government agencies such as FBI and the CIA as part of an organized effort by intrusive cyber terrorists. Foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems.
A cyber terrorist is one who threatens a government or organization. By launching computer based attacks against computers, networks or information stored on them.
Cyber terrorism can, in general, be defined as an act of terrorism carried out through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Park 1983). For example, a simple propaganda piece on the Internet that bomb attacks will happen during the holidays can be considered cyber terrorism. There are also hacking activities directed at individuals or groups within the network. That gathers information relevant to instill fear in people, demonstrate power, ruin people’s lives, robberies, blackmailing, and more.
3. Cyber Extortion
Cyber extortion occurs when there is a threat of repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers on a website, e-mail server. These hackers demand money in exchange for promising to stop the attacks and offer “protection”. In the report of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyber crime extremists are more and more attacking corporate networks and their websites.
They disable their ability to restore their service and payment. More than 20 cases are filed to the FBI each month and many go unproven to keep the victim’s name out of the public domain.
Criminals typically use a distributed denial of service attack. However, other cyber extortion techniques exist such as docking extension and bug posing. An example of cyber extortion was the 2014 attack on Sony Pictures.
4. Cyber Warfare
The US Department of Defense (DoD) notes that cyberspace has emerged as a national level concern through several recent developments of political importance. Those include the 2007 attack on Estonia’s infrastructure, allegedly by Russian hackers.
In August 2008, Russia faced cyber attacks. At that time integrated and caused to operate at the same time non-kinetic and kinetic drive against the Georgia country. In 2015, December Ukraine power grid cyber attack has also been to accuse Russia and is first successful cyber attack on the power grid.
Fearing that such attacks might become the norm in future warfare between nation-states. The concept of cyberspace operation would be affected and would be adapted by military commanders fighting wars in the future.
These types of crimes are doing by a special group of criminals. Unlike crimes that use computers as a tool, these crimes require technical knowledge of criminals. As technology develops, so does the nature of crime.
These crimes are relatively new. In this type of crime mainly goes through computer selected software:
- Computer viruses
- Denial of service attacks
- Malware (malicious code)
COMPUTER AS A TOOL
When the person is the main target of cyber crime, the computer can be considered as a tool rather than a target. These crimes typically involve little technical expertise. Human weaknesses are usually exploited.
Dealing with loss is largely psychological and intangible, making legal action against variants difficult. These are crimes that have existed in the offline world for centuries. Scams, piracy, and the like already exist before development in high-tech devices. The same criminal has simply been given a device that increases the potential pool of victims and makes it harder to trace and capture them.
In May 2017, 74 countries logged a ransomware cyber crime, called “Wanna Cry”. In December 2019, the United States intelligence revealed that messaging application of the United Arab Emirates. The Government of Emirate focuses on tracking every movement, conversation, appointment, relationship, sound and image of those who install the app in phones.
CYBER CRIME IN INDIA
Computer crime in India is developing rapidly in the 21st century. Technical support scams, along with the IRS, are among the most common forms of trust tricks used to obtain money from antitrust victims.
Cyber Crime Investigation Cell in India
Cyber crime cells have been established in major cities in India, but most of the cases are still unavailable due to lack of awareness. List of Cyber crime Cells:
- Cyber Crime Investigation Cell (New Delhi)
- Cyber Crime Investigation Cell (Mumbai)
- Cyber Crime Investigation Cell (Noida)
- Cyber crime Police Station, Hyderabad
- Cyber crime Cell Rajasthan
- Cyber crime Cell Punjab
From March 2018, the Ministry of Home Affairs (India) ran a Twitter handle called “Cyber Dude” to create cyber security awareness.
According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), a total of 12,187 cyber crime cases were reported across India as compared to 11,331 cases reported in 2015 in 2016. In 2015 the number of cases of cyber crime increased by 20.50 percent. In 2015, cases increased by 2014 and 6.3 percent in 2015.
As far as cyber crime cases are concerned, Maharashtra (2380) and Karnataka (1101) have recorded the highest number of cases in Uttar Pradesh with a figure of 2,639. Tamil Nadu reported 172 cases in 2014, which declined to 142 in 2015 and marginally increased to 144 in 2016. Among metropolitan cities, Mumbai ranked first with 980 cases followed by Bengaluru 762 and Jaipur 532. The city of Chennai with 26 cases was ranked in 16 metros.
PUNISHMENT IN CYBER CRIME OFFENSE
Section 66 – Computer related offenses. If any person commits dishonestly, or fraudulently, any act mentioned in section 43, he can be punished two to three years or punished with fine. Which can increase to five lakhs(5 L) Rupees or both.
Identity theft as
Unfaithful use of another person’s password, electronic signature, or any other unique identification feature, will be punished with imprisonment of either description for up to three years and May be extended.
Decision on Convicted
The accused were convicted of offenses under sections 469, 509 IPC and 67 of the IT Act 2000. He is convicted and sentenced for the crime:
- As per IPC 469, he will have to pay rigorous imprisonment for 2 years and a fine of Rs.500/ –
- According to 509 of the IPC, he will have to pay 1 year of imprisonment and a fine of Rs.500/ –
- As per Section 67 of IT Act 2000, he has to undergo 2 years and Rs. 4000 / – will have to be paid.
All sentences were to run concurrently. The accused paid a good amount of money and was lodged in Central Jail, Chennai. It is believed to be the first case convicted in India under Section 67 of the Information Technology Act 2000.
HOW TO STOP CYBER CRIME IN INDIA?
Cyber crime in India is defined under the IT Act. Living in a technology age environment makes people susceptible to crimes that occur in cyber crime known as cyber crimes. There are various ways of dealing with cyber crimes. In India and you can start setting strong passwords by keeping social networking sites in private mode. Other prevention are as follows:
- Install a firewall for your network.
- Install anti-virus, malware and spyware software.
- Encrypt data.
- Use a virtual private network (VPN).
- Implement an employee password policy.
- Back up data regularly.
Cyber crime has been developing rapidly in India since the beginning of the technological era. Every day, in fact, you get to hear various tricks, scams and many other crimes being carried out on cyberspace. There are several types of cyber crimes in India which are already listed under the Information Technology Act, 2000, which suggest different types of crimes. Many cyber crime cells have been set up in India, in major cities, to follow the guidelines of the Cyber crime Act in India.
With the advancement of technology recent cases of cyber crime in India have also increased. Today, many crimes like kidnapping, fraud, hacking and data theft are being committed with the help of internet. Criminals carrying out such activities are often called “hackers”. Many cases of cyber crime in India are registered under the IT Act.
Digital media is unbridled these days and the internet has made life easier for everyone. Criminal of cyber attacks by terrorist organizations the number of cyber crimes in India has also increased. It has made man dependent on technology for every small and big basic need. Today every need is covered online such as online shopping ordering food online gaming, paying and etc.